- Robert Thorndike was writing about social intelligence in 1937,
- David Wechsler defined intelligence as the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment (Wechsler, 1958, p. 7). As early as 1940 Wechsler referred to non-intellective as well as intellective elements (Wechsler, 1940), by which he meant affective, personal, and social factors. Furthermore, as early as 1943 Wechsler was proposing that the non-intellective abilities are essential for predicting ones ability to succeed in life.
- Howard Gardner began to write about multiple intelligence in 1983, when he proposed that intrapersonal and interpersonal intelligences are as important as the type of intelligence typically measured by IQ and related tests.
- Salovey and Mayer actually coined the term emotional intelligence in 1990. They described emotional intelligence as "a form of social intelligence that involves the ability to monitor ones own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this information to guide ones thinking and action" (Salovey & Mayer, 1990). Salovey and Mayer also initiated a research program intended to develop valid measures of emotional intelligence and to explore its significance.
The Five (Four) Domains of Emotional Intelligence
- Knowing one's emotions (self-awareness - recognizing a feeling as it happens)
- Managing emotions (the ability of handling feelings so they are appropriate)
- Motivating oneself (marshalling emotions in the service of a goal)
- Recognizing emotions in others (empathy, social awareness)
- Handling relationships (skill in managing emotions in others)
IQ or EI?
According to some scientists, IQ by itself is NOT a very good predictor of job performance. Hunter and Hunter (1984) estimated that at best IQ accounts for about 25 percent of the variance. Sternberg (1996) has pointed out that studies vary and that 10 percent may be a more realistic estimate.
In some studies, IQ accounts for as little as 4 percent of the variance. In a recent meta-analysis examining the correlation and predictive validity of EI when compared to IQ or general mental ability, Van Rooy and Viswesvaran (2004) found IQ to be a better predictor of work and academic performance than EI.
However, when it comes to the question of whether a person will become a “star performer” (in the top ten percent, however such performance is appropriately assessed) within that role, or be an outstanding leader, IQ may be a less powerful predictor than emotional intelligence (Goleman 1998, 2001, 2002).